Dr. Mark R. Hjelmfelt

Research Scientist IV, Adjunct Professor, and Professor Emeritus

Dr. Mark Hjelmfelt

Department of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences
South Dakota School of Mines and Technology
501 East Saint Joseph Street
Rapid City, South Dakota 57701-3995

Phone: 605-394-2291
FAX: 605-394-6061 
email: mark.hjelmfelt@sdsmt.edu

 
Research Interests
University Activities
 Vita 
Affiliations
Other Activities
Publications

Research Interests

Severe storms:  Downbursts, flash floods, hail
Lake effect snow storms (For more information on this project, click on the following link: Lake Effect)
Orographic effects on clouds and precipitation
Convective storm initiation and organization
Coupled hydrologic modeling

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Published Work

A list of recently-published journal articles, as well as conference papers, is given at the end of this page. Click here to jump there.

University Activities

Dr. Hjelmfelt joined the Institute of Atmospheric Sciences in September 1988. He retired from teaching duties in the fall of 2010, but remains on staff to continue with his research projects.

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Vita

Dr. Hjelmfelt received his B.S. degree in Physics from Kansas State University in 1969.  Following a year studying meteorology at Purdue University, he entered the Air Force, serving as a Russian linguist and weather observer.  While in the Air Force, he enrolled in the Department of Meteorology at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology and received his M.S. degree in 1975.  He obtained a Ph.D. degree in meteorology from the University of Chicago in 1980.  From 1980 to 1982, Dr. Hjelmfelt was a Post-doctoral Fellow in the Advanced Study Program at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR).

During 1982 and 1983, he was employed in the Atmospheric Sciences Group at Brookhaven National Laboratory.  In 1983, he returned to NCAR as a Scientist I with the Field Observing Facility (FOF), serving as Field Manager and engaging in research on microbursts and lake effect snowstorms.  In 1986, he was promoted to Scientist II and served as Acting Head of the Applied Science Group of the Research Applications Program at NCAR.  Dr. Hjelmfelt joined the Institute of Atmospheric Sciences in September 1988 and retired in 2010, after serving as a professor and department chair in the Department of Atmospheric Sciences, as well as conducting research. He currently is on staff as a research scientist to complete his research work.

Dr. Hjelmfelt is a member of the American Meteorological Society. He has served on the AMS Committee on Mesoscale Processes and as an Associate Editor of the Journal of Applied Meteorology.  Dr. Hjelmfelt has authored or coauthored a number of papers covering topics such as mesoscale meteorology, microbursts, and cloud physics. He has participated in the scientific planning and field operations for a number of meteorological research programs, including the recent Lake-ICE experiment where he served as an ELDORA radar scientist and Operations Director.  His current research interests involve both numerical and observational studies relating to the initiation and organization of cloud systems and their interactions with their environment.  Numerical modeling studies have emphasized convection initiation and storm structure and the influences of orography and surface inhomogeneities on clouds and precipitation. 

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Affiliations

- Member of the American Meteorological Society and the American Geophysical Union

Selected Publications

Refereed Publications   

George, J.T., M.R. Hjelmfelt, and W.J. Capehart, 2008: WRF simulations of environmental conditions conducive to the formation of lake-to-lake bands. 9th Annual WRF User’s Workshop, June 23-27, 2008, Boulder, CO, NCAR.Rodriquez, Y., D.A.R. Kristovich, and M.R. Hjelmfelt, 2007: Lake-to-lake cloud bands: frequencies and locations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 135, 4202–4213.

Bunkers, M. J., M. R. Hjelmfelt, and P. L. J. Smith, 2006: An observational examination of long-lived supercells. Part I: Characteristics, evolution, and demise. Weather and Forecasting, 21, 673-688.

Bunkers, M. J., M. R. Hjelmfelt, and J. P.L. Smith, 2006: An observational examination of long-lived supercells. Part I: Characteristics, evolution, and demise. Weather and Forecasting, 21, 689-714

Schroeder, J. J., D.A.R. Kristovich, and M.R. Hjelmfelt, 2006: Boundary layer and microphysical influences of natural cloud seeding on a lake-effect snow storm. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134, 1842-1858.

Farley, R. D., T. Wu, H. D. Orville, and M. R. Hjelmfelt, 2004a: Numerical simulation of hail formation in the 28 June 1989 Bismarck Thunderstorm: Part I, Hail Growth. Atmos. Research, 71, 51-79.

Farley, R. D., H. Chen, H. D. Orville, and M. R. Hjelmfelt, 2004b:  Numerical simulation of hail formation in the 28 June 1989 Bismarck Thunderstorm: Part II, Cloud seeding results. Atmos. Research, 71, 81-113.

Wang, J., M.R. Hjelmfelt, W.J. Capehart, and R.D. Farley, 2003: Coupled model simulation of snowfall events over the Black Hills. J. Appl. Meteor., 42, 775-796.

Klimowski, B. A.,  M. R. Hjelmfelt, and M. J. Bunkers, 2003: Early evolution of bow echoes. Weather and Forecasting., 19, 727-734.    

Kristovich, D. A. R., N. F. Laird, and M. R. Hjelmfelt, 2003: Convective evolution across Lake Michigan during a widespread lake-effect snow event. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131, 643-655.    

Klimowski, B. A., M. J. Bunkers, M. R. Hjelmfelt, and J. N. Covert, 2003: Severe convective windstorms over the Northern High Plains of the United States. Weather and Forecasting., 18, 502-519.

Young, G.S., D. A. R. Kristovich, M.R. Hjelmfelt, and R. C. Foster, 2002:  Rolls, Streets, Waves and More: A Review of quasi-two dimensional structures in the atmospheric boundary layer. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83, 997-1001.  

Young, G.S., D.A.R. Kristovich, M.R. Hjelmfelt, and R. C. Foster, 2002: Supplement to  Rolls, Streets, Waves and More. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83, 1001-1001.

Cooper, K.A., M.R. Hjelmfelt, R.G. Derickson, D.A.R. Kristovich, and N. Laird, 2000: Numerical simulation of transitions in boundary layer convective structures in a lake-effect snow event. Monthly Weather Review, 128, 3283-3295.

Kristovich, D.A.R., G.S. Young, J. Verlinde, P.J. Sousounis, P. Mourad, D. Lenschow, R.M. Rauber, M.K. Ramamurthy, B.F. Jewett, K. Beard, E. Cutrim, P.J. DeMott, E.W. Eloranta, M.R. Hjelmfelt, S.M. Kreidenweis, J. Martin, J. Moore, H.T. Ochs, D.C. Rogers, J. Scala, G. Tripoli, and J. Young, 2000: The Lake-Induced Convection Experiment (Lake-ICE) and the snowband dynamics project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 81, 519-542.  

 

Conference Presentations

 

Carroll, K., W. Capehart, and M. Hjelmfelt, 2009: High resolution modeling in WRF to determine the impact of terrain resolution on low-level winds in complex terrain. Presented at the 10th WRF User’s Workshop, Boulder, CO, NCAR.

Stauffer, P., W. Capehart, C. Wright, and G. Henebry, 2009: Impact of vegetation cover estimates on regional climate forecasts. Presented at the 10th WRF User’s Workshop, Boulder, CO, NCAR.

George, J.T., M.R. Hjelmfelt, W.J. Capehart, and D.A.R. Kristovitch, 2009: Simulation of environmental conditions conducive to the formation of lake-to-lake bands. 13th Conf. on Mesoscale Processes, Aug. 17-20, Salt Lake City, UT, Amer. Meteor. Soc.

Axford, T., M.R. Hjelmfelt, W.J. Capehart, and D.A.R. Kristovitch, 2009: Numerical simulation of impacts of the Great Lakes on cold frontal passages. 13th Conf. on Mesoscale Processes, Aug. 17-20, Salt Lake City, UT, Amer. Meteor. Soc.

Axford, T., M.R. Hjelmfelt, and W.R. Capehart, 2008: Understanding frontal passage over the Great Lakes. 9th Annual WRF User’s Workshop, June 23-27, 2008, Boulder, CO, NCAR.

George, J.T., M.R. Hjelmfelt, and W.J. Capehart, 2008: WRF simulations of environmental conditions conducive to the formation of lake-to-lake bands. 9th Annual WRF User’s Workshop, June 23-27, 2008, Boulder, CO, NCAR.

 Franks, C.L., W.J. Capehart, and M.R. Hjelmfelt, 2007: Using abridged atmospheric data in mesoscale modeling: Applications to incident meteorology scenarios. Preprint, 18th Conf. on Numerical Weather Prediction, Park City, UT, Amer. Meteor. Soc.

Wetenkamp, J.R., W.J. Capehart, and M.R. Hjelmfelt, 2007: Sensitivity of short range numerical weather prediction to data availability during the North American monsoon experiment. Preprint, 18th Conference on Numerical Weather Prediction, Park City, UT, Amer. Meteor. Soc.

Hjelmfelt, M.R., W.J. Capehart, Y. Rodriguez, D.A.R. Kristovich, and R.B. Hoevet, 2004: Influences of upwind lakes on the wintertime lake-effect boundary layer, 16th Symposium on Boundary Layers and Turbulence, Portland, ME, 9-13 Aug. 2004, Amer. Meteor. Soc.

Dreher, J., K. Fitzpatrick, M.R. Hjelmfelt, W.J. Capehart, D.A.R. Kristovich, and J. Schroeder, 2004: Interactions of the winter lake-affected boundary layer with synoptic systems. 16th Symposium on Boundary Layers and Turbulence, Portland, ME, 9-13 Aug. 2004, Amer. Meteor. Soc.

Capehart, W.J., M.R. Hjelmfelt, R.D. Farley, K.W. Harding, D.P. Todey, and J.L. Elsen, 2004: The role of prairie wetland extent on the pre-storm environment of the Northern Great Plains. 18th Conference on Hydrology, Seattle, WA, 11-15 January 2004, American Meteorological Society, JP4.12.

Dreher;  J.G., M.R. Hjelmfelt, W.J. Capehart, and D.A.R. Kristovich, 2004: The Influence Of Lake Michigan On A Wintertime Cold Front. 20th Conference on Weather Analysis and Forecasting/16th Conference on Numerical Weather Prediction, Seattle, WA.  11-15 January 2004, American Meteorological Society, P 1.22

Katy L. Fitzpatrick, M. R. Hjelmfelt, W. J. Capehart, and D. A. R. Kristovich, 2004: Numerically Simulated Interactions Between A Precipitating Synoptic System And Lake-Effect Snowbands Over Lake Michigan. 20th Conference on Weather Analysis and Forecasting/16th Conference on Numerical Weather Prediction, Seattle, WA. , 11-15 January 2004, American Meteorological Society P 2.16

Hjelmfelt, M.R., 2003: Microbursts and their Numerical Prediction. Preprints: Harold D. Orville Symposium, Rapid City SD, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, 51-67.

Schroeder, J.J., D.A.R. Kristovich, and M.R. Hjelmfelt, 2003: Mesoscale and microscale field observations of a lake-enhanced snowstorm. 11th  Con. on Mesoscale Processes, Portland  OR, Amer. Meteor. Soc. Paper  14.6.   

Hjelmfelt, M.R., W.J. Capehart, and D. A. R. Kristovich, 2003: Numerical simulation of convective evolution across Lake Michigan during a widespread lake-effect snow event.  11th Conf. on Mesoscale Processes, Portland, OR. Amer. Meteor. Soc. Paper 14.7.   

Schroeder, J.J., D.A.R. Kristovich, and M.R. Hjelmfelt, 2002: The effects of a precipitating wintertime synoptic system on a lake-induced convective boundary layer. 11th  Conf on Cloud Phys., Ogden, Utah, Amer. Meteor. Soc. Paper  8.2.

Wang, J., M.R. Hjelmfelt, W.J. Capehart, and R.D. Farley, 2002: Numerical Forecast Simulations of Precipitation events in Complex Terrain. Conf on Numerical Wea. Prediction. San Antonio, TX. Amer. Meteor. Soc. Joint Poster 4.1.

 Kristovich, D.A.R., M.R. Hjelmfelt, M.C. Peters and M.S. Tomlin, 2001: Lake Michigan surface temperature variations and impacts on convective intensity. 9th Conf. On Mesoscale Processes, Ft. Lauderdale, FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 385-388.

Klimowski, B.A., M.J. Bunkers, and M.R. Hjelmfelt, 2001: Radar characteristics of severe wind-producing convective systems over the Northern High Plains.  9th Conf. On Mesoscale Processes. Ft. Lauderdale, FL, Amer. Meteor.(Poster presented by Hjelmfelt)        

Klimowski, B.A., R. Pryzbylinski, G. Schmocker, and M.R. Hjelmfelt, 2000: Observations of the formation and early evolution of bow echoes.  20th Conf. On Severe Local Storms, Orlando, FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc.  

Guo, L., M. R. Hjelmfelt, D.R. Kristovich and W. J. Capehart, 2000:  Numerical simulation of  boundary layer development and convective structure over Lake Michigan during Lake-ICE.   14th Symp. Bound-Layer and Turbulence. Aspen, CO., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 496-498.

Wang, J., M.R. Hjelmfelt, and W.J. Capehart, 2000: Coupled model simulation of snowfall events over the Black Hills.  9th Conf. On Mountain. Meteor, Aspen, CO, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 327-329.

Kristovich, D.A.R., N.F. Laird, and M.R. Hjelmfelt, 2000: In-situ and Doppler radar observations of lake-effect boundary layer circulations. 14th Symp. on Bound. Layer and Turbulence, Aspen, CO, Amer. Meteor. Soc. 484-487.

Capehart, W.J., R.D. Farley, M.R. Hjelmfelt, A.D. Davis, S.J. Kenner, F. Zheng, C.A. Naus, C.S. Johnson and J. Wang, 2000: A coupled atmospheric-hydrologic model for Black Hills hydrology studies. 1999 Conference on the Hydrology of the Black Hills, Rapid City, SD, SDSM&T Bulletin No. 20, 23-28. [Available from the Department of Geology and Geological Engineering, SDSM&T, 501 E. St. Joseph Street, Rapid City, SD 57701.]     

Davis, A.D., W.J. Capehart, M.R. Hjelmfelt, S.J. Kenner, C.S. Johnson, and C.A. Naus, 1999: Coupling of a ground-water model to atmospheric and surface-water models in the complex terrain of the Black Hills. 1999 Conference on the Hydrology of the Black Hills: Rapid City, SD, SDSM&T Bulletin No. 20, [Available from the Department of Geology and Geological Engineering, SDSM&T, 501 E. St. Joseph Street, Rapid City, SD 57701.]          

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